Polycystic ovary syndrome affects about 10% of reproductive-age women. An excess of male hormones (androgens) can cause problems such as obesity, acne, and infertility. PCOS is also associated with comorbidities (PCOSCO), which are conditions that co-occur with PCOS. Individuals with PCOS may suffer from these comorbidities on both a physical and psychological level.
This article discusses comorbidities associated with PCOS, specifically those related to fertility. As well as discussing the impact of acne and weight gain on fertility, we will also discuss how polycystic ovaries affect diabetes and heart health. Last but not least, we will discuss some tips for managing PCOS comorbidities.
Polycystic ovary syndrome: what is it?
There are more than half a million women of reproductive age in the United States who suffer from PCOS, an endocrine disorder. A cyst is an enlarged, fluid-filled sac on the ovaries that can cause infertility and other reproductive problems in women.
Insulin resistance, obesity, and type 2 diabetes are often associated with this disorder. A comorbid condition is thought to play a role in PCOS development and severity.
It is sometimes difficult to diagnose this syndrome because it mimics other health conditions. If you have it, your doctor will perform a physical examination and order tests to determine if there are any hormonal abnormalities. A doctor may recommend treatments for PCOS if you have symptoms.
Symptoms and signs
Some of the most common signs and symptoms of PCOS include irregular periods, infertility, weight gain, and acne. There is no one-size-fits-all treatment for PCOS, but there are many treatments that can help improve symptoms.
Consult with your doctor if you are experiencing any signs or symptoms of PCOS to determine if you have this condition and what can be done to improve your quality of life.
The Different Types of PCOS
The conditions can be classified into a number of different types, each with a unique set of comorbidities. The following are some common comorbidities:
– High insulin resistance
– Hyperandrogenism (a high level of male hormones).
– Anovulatory cycles (lack of ovulation)
– Overweight or obesity
– Type II diabetes mellitus
– Heart disease
– Cognitive impairment
– Psychological disorders such as anxiety and depression
Comorbidities in PCOS
In addition to diabetes, obesity, and heart disease, the syndrome increases the risk of developing other diseases.
The PCOSCO profile has not been well studied, but research suggests that other health conditions commonly co-occur with PCOS. Among these conditions are:
It is a common comorbidity. Obesity is associated with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes and other chronic diseases, including heart disease, stroke, and cancer.
Type 2 diabetes
Comorbidities such as diabetes are also common. Diabetes increases the risk of complications related to pregnancy, such as gestational diabetes and high blood pressure. A major factor in PCOS development is insulin resistance, which can be caused by PCOS.
In about half of the women with polycystic ovary syndrome, it occurs. After childbirth, gestational diabetes usually disappears, but it can occasionally lead to type II diabetes.
High blood pressure
PCOS is also associated with hypertension. Hypertension increases your risk of developing cardiovascular disease, which is a leading cause of death for women. Additionally, hypertension can cause diabetes and obesity.
It can be difficult to diagnose hypertension in women with PCOSCO because symptoms may not appear until the condition is quite severe. PCOS-related hypertension symptoms include:
- Having heavy menstrual periods
- Vomiting or nausea
- Extreme tiredness
- A fast heart rate
- Fluid buildup on the body (edema)
- For a diagnosis and treatment plan, please consult your doctor if you experience any of these symptoms.
Obstructive sleep apnea
People with obstructive sleep apnea repeatedly stop breathing during sleep, usually due to a collapsed airway. Diabetes, inflammation, and weight gain can result from this.
The condition is more common in women than in men, as well as in people who have PCOS. The high levels of testosterone that are often associated with PCOS can contribute to the development of obstructive sleep apnea. Obstructions in sleep apnea are usually caused by tissue accumulation around the airway. Recurrent breathing stops and starts can be caused by this tissue, which makes it difficult for the air to flow freely through the airway.
Depression or anxiety
A polycystic ovary can lead to weight gain, which in turn can increase stress hormones. In addition, women with PCOS tend to be more anxious than women without the condition. The reason for this may be that PCOS can cause infertility and difficulty regulating hormones. It is also common for women to experience mood swings, which can make them feel anxious or depressed.
Treatment for polycystic ovary syndrome varies based on the individual’s symptoms and medical history, as there is no one-size-fits-all approach. The following are some common PCOS treatment options:
Birth control pills
It helps regulate menstrual cycles and reduces the number of eggs released by the ovaries. PCOS is most commonly treated with combined oral contraceptives (COCs) containing Ethinyl estradiol and norethindrone. By stopping ovulation, these drugs may decrease the risk of developing ovarian cancer. A birth control pill may have side effects such as mood changes, weight gain, or missed periods.
The goal of treating PCOS with weight loss is to increase insulin sensitivity and to reduce acne and other skin problems associated with this condition. In some cases, gastric bypass surgery or other weight-loss surgery may be required. The symptoms of PCOS may also be improved by reducing sugar intake, eating fewer processed foods, and consuming more fiber.
Metformin, a medication used to treat diabetes mellitus, has been shown to be effective in reducing testosterone levels in women with PCOS. Furthermore, it can reduce insulin resistance, which may improve blood sugar control in people with PCOS and reduce the risk of diabetes later in life. The most common side effects of metformin are nausea, diarrhea, and lactic acidosis.
Prevention of PCOS
Women of reproductive age are affected by PCOS. It affects how your hormones work, causing problems like high blood pressure, obesity, and difficulty getting pregnant. You can take a variety of steps to keep your condition under control. For prevention, here are five tips:
1. Balance your diet. Eat plenty of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean protein.
2. Regular exercise is important. Besides helping you lose weight and improve your overall health, exercise can also normalize your hormone levels and reduce your risk of PCOSCO.
3. Stress should be limited in your life. Stress can trigger fluctuations in your hormones, resulting in PCOS symptoms. You can regulate your body’s natural cycle by taking some time to relax and de-stress each day.
4. Seek treatment for any medical conditions that may be contributing to PCOS symptoms. Thyroid disease and diabetes can affect hormone balance, which can lead to polycystic ovary syndrome.
5. Record your menstrual cycle for two years; this will allow you to track any changes in your symptoms and any progress you make toward prevention.
A common endocrine condition, PCOSCO affects about 10 percent of women. There is an imbalance in the production of male sex hormones and enlarged ovaries.
Obesity, diabetes, and chronic inflammation are among the most common comorbidities associated with PCOSCO.
In addition to worsening PCOS symptoms, these conditions can make it more difficult to manage. Consult your healthcare provider if you are concerned about your health or want to learn more about polycystic ovary syndrome.
Leave a Reply